Mr Masahiro Shiozaki and Dr Enomoto compared the 2015/16 El Niño event with the two previous significant events in 1982/83 and in 1997/98.
During El Niño, eastern Pacific near the equator is warmer than usual. El Niño influences mid-latitudes due to shifts of active convection. Japan tends to be warm during El Niño. Interestingly, winter climate in Japan varied during super El Niño’s: colder than normal, warmer than normal, and normal in 1982/83, 1997/98, 2015/16, respectively. In 2015/16, the Indian Ocean basin warming occurred to suppress convection in the maritime continent. As a result, the winter Asian monsoon was weaker than normal. In 1997/98 (1982/83), a positive (negative) Indian Ocean Dipole mode occurred to make the winter warmer (colder) than normal in Far East.
- Shiozaki, M. and T. Enomoto, 2020: Comparison of the 2015/16 El Niño with the two previous strongest events. SOLA, 16, doi:10.2151/sola.2020-003, 12–16.